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Legal Research Skills Guide: A & C - Apply & Conclude...

Application of the rules to the facts

When you have researched your issues and updated the law that you found, the next step in IRAC is to apply the relevant rules to the issues and facts of your problem.

  • You should address each issue in turn and address both sides of the argument.
  • You might start sentences with
    • In this situation…
    • It could be argued…
  • It is important to take time to discuss the contentious issues of the case rather than just the ones that are obvious or comfortable for you.
  • Acknowledge any gaps in the facts and demonstrate how the rules would apply for any possible gaps, for & against


The final part of the IRAC method is to come to a conclusion. This is where you can play judge and stand back and pick your idea of the most appropriate outcome.

Depending on the discipline you're studying, you might like to include

  • Who is liable in your scenario?
  • What could the parties have done to better manage their risks to avoid this legal principle?

You aren't expected to support your discussion with references in the conclusion.