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EndNote: Unformatted citations

Working with Unformatted citations

If you are working with a large document (e.g. thesis) you may wish to work with unformatted citations in order to:

  • speed up opening, editing and saving of the document
  • minimise the chances of corrupting data when editing sections of text, i.e. moving sections of text that include in-text citations with hidden field codes

Unlike formatted citations, unformatted citations require that you have the corresponding EndNote library open in order to Update Citations & Bibliography.

Formatted references

Formatted references inserted in a Microsoft™ Word document using CWYW will be displayed in the selected output style:

(Spencer, 2006)

and be associated with a corresponding item in the reference list.

Spencer, P. E. (2006). Oxford handbook of deaf studies, language, and education. Oxford University Press.

Unformatted references

In-text citations can be unformatted using


Convert Citations & Bibliography > Convert to Unformatted Citations


Tools > Convert to Unformatted Citations

The same reference would appear unformatted as:

{Spencer, 2006 #145}

This can be converted back to a formatted reference using


Update Citations and Bibliography


Tools > Update Citations & Bibliography

You can continue to write, edit and insert citations while Instant Formatting is Off.

Unformatted citations can also be manually edited in Microsoft™ Word; to add a prefix, suffix or page numbers, exclude the author or year, or remove the citation, Adding '@25' to the above unformatted citation, i.e.  {Spencer, 2006 #145@25}, results in the formatted citation (Spencer, 2006, p.25).

Unformatted citation: Becomes formatted citation:
{Smith, 2017 #124@45}    (Smith, 2017, p.45)
{Bonham, 2008 #156@@author-year}  Bonham (2008)
{Bonham, 2008 #156@23@author-year} Bonham (2008, p. 23)

Charles Sturt University acknowledges the traditional custodians of the lands on which its campuses are located, paying respect to Elders, both past and present, and extend that respect to all First Nations Peoples.Acknowledgement of Country

Charles Sturt University is an Australian University, TEQSA Provider Identification: PRV12018. CRICOS Provider: 00005F.