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ISL181/481 Research Skills Guide: Chicago style

Citations and referencing in Chicago Style

The Notes and Bibliography format from the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. is used throughout the humanities, and this is the style you can use for ISL181 and ISL481. This style uses numbered footnotes.

Each time you need to include a citation, add a footnote and include details about the source in the footnote. The footnote will correspond to an entry in your Bibliography. 

Refer to The Chicago Manual of Style Online for more information.

Citing a book

A book by a single author

Footnote

1. Author, Book title (Location: Publisher, year) page number/s.

e.g. 1. Najam Haider, The Rebel and the Imām in Early Islam: Explorations in Muslim Historiography (Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, 2019), 52.

Bibliography entry

Author. Book Title. Publisher: Place, Year.

e.g. Haider, Najam. The Rebel and the Imām in Early Islam: Explorations in Muslim Historiography. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, 2019.

Note: In the Footnote, the author is represented as Firstname Surname, but in the Bibliography they are represented as Surname, Firstname. 

A book with multiple authors

Footnote

1. Authors, Book Title (Location: Publisher, year) page number/s.

e.g. 1. 'Abd al-Rah̥mān ʻAzzām, Caesar E. Farah and Vincent Sheean, The Eternal Message of Muhammad, (Cambridge, UK: The Islamic Texts Society, 1993), 134.

Bibliography entry

Authors. Book Title. Publisher: Place, Year.

e.g. ʻAzzām, ʻAbd al-Rah̥mān, Caesar E. Farah and Vincent Sheean. The Eternal Message of Muhammad. Cambridge, UK: The Islamic Texts Society, 1993.

Note: The authors should appear in the same order as they are listed on the front cover of the book. 

Note: When a book has four or more authors, you can use a shortened list of authors in the Footnote. For example, include the first author et al. e.g. David Bordwell et al., in the Footnote, then the full list in your Bibliography. 

A chapter in an edited book

Footnote

1. Author, "Chapter Title" in Book Title, ed. Editor  (Location: Publisher, year) page number/s.

e.g. 1. Tariq Ramadan, "Multiculturalism: Commonality, Diversity and Psychological Integration" in Islam in the West: Key Issues in Multiculturalism, eds Farrar, M., Robinson, S., Valli, Y., & Wetherly, P. (Eds) (London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2012), 45-35.

Bibliography entry

Author. "Chapter Title". In Book Title, edited by Editor/s. Location: Publisher, year.

e.g. Ramadan, Tariq. "Multiculturalism: Commonality, Diversity and Psychological Integration." In Islam in the West: Key Issues in Multiculturalism, edited by Max Farrar, Yasmin Valli, S. Robinson, and P. Wetherly. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2012.

Citing an article

A journal article

Footnote

1. Author, "Article Title," Journal Title, Volume, issue (Year): page number/s, DOI oe URL if available. 

e.g. 1. Saïd Amir Arjomand, "The Constitution of Medina: A Sociolegal Interpretation of Muhammad's Acts of Foundation of the "Umma"" International Journal of Middle East Studies 41, no. 4 (2009): 555-75, DOI: 10.1017/S00020743809990067

Bibliography entry

Author. "Article Title." Journal Title, volume, issue (Year): page number/s. DOI or URL if available.

e.g. Arjomand, Saïd Amir. "The Constitution of Medina: A Sociolegal Interpretation of Muhammad's Acts of Foundation of the "Umma"." International Journal of Middle East Studies 41, no. 4 (2009): 555-75. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40389306

Note: The authors should appear in the same order as they are listed in the article. 

Note: If an article has four or more authors, use a shortened list of authors in the Footnote, and then the full list in your Bibliography. 

Note: If you accessed the article online but can't find the DOI or a stable URL, you can list the name of the database after the page numbers e.g. JSTOR.

A magazine or newspaper article

Footnote

1. Author, "Article Title," Publication Title, Date, Year, Database or URL if accessed online 

e.g. 1. John Andrew Morrow, "The social and political reform of the Prophet," Australasian Muslim Times,  26 February 2019, https://www.amust.com.au/2019/02/the-social-and-political-reform-of-the-prophet/.

Bibliography entry

Author. "Article Title." Publication Title,  Date, Year. Database or URL.

e.g. Morrow, John Andrew. "The social and political reform of the Prophet." Australasian Muslim Times,  26 February 2019. https://www.amust.com.au/2019/02/the-social-and-political-reform-of-the-prophet/.

Note: Page numbers can be cited but are not required for bibliography entries.

Citing a website

A website

Footnote

1. Author if available, "Title or description of specific page", Title, description or owner of website, Date of publication or date accessed, URL.

e.g. 1. "Pillars of Faith," United Muslims of Australia, accessed 14 July 2021, https://www.uma.org.au/pillars-of-faith/.

e.g. 2. Abul Hasan M Sadeq, "A brief account of major political and economic measures, events and achievements of the Prophet's life in Madinah al-Munawwarah," Al-Sirah, accessed 14 July 2021,  https://www.alsirah.com/a-brief-account-of-major-political-and-economic-measures-events-and-achievements-of-the-prophets-life-in-madinah-al-munawwarah/

Bibliography entry

Author or owner of website. "Webpage title." Title of website (if this isn't the same as the owner). Date of publication or date accessed. URL.

e.g. United Muslims of Australia. "Pillars of Faith." Accessed 14 July 2021. https://www.uma.org.au/pillars-of-faith/.

e.g. Sadeq, Abul Hasan M. "A brief account of major political and economic measures, events and achievements of the Prophet's life in Madinah al-Munawwarah." Al-Sirah. Accessed 14 July 2021.  https://www.alsirah.com/a-brief-account-of-major-political-and-economic-measures-events-and-achievements-of-the-prophets-life-in-madinah-al-munawwarah/

Note: It's often enough to describe a website in the text. Only provide a formal citation if necessary.

Note: If a date of publication or revision is not available, use the date that you accessed the resource.

Note: Blog posts or online news articles should be cited like magazine or newspaper articles.

Chicago Style Resources

The Library has access to The Chicago Manual of Style Online, and there are print copies of past editions in the Library collection.

Additional resources:

If you're using EndNote, you can change your Endnote settings to Chicago, so it will automatically format your in-text citations and bibliography in Chicago style. See the EndNote Library Guide for more information about using EndNote.

Direct quotation

You can directly quote from a source as long as you make it very clear what is the quote and what is your own words. Format it clearly and make sure to cite correctly. 

  • Use quotation marks around the whole quote if you are using it within a paragraph
  • Indent it and italicise if you are using it as it's own paragraph
  • Make a footnote using the author(s), year of publication, and the exact page number(s). 

 

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