Stage 1 of your research process will involve developing your research topic and related questions, or what you could call an ideas plan.
To begin spend some time brainstorming any ideas, topics, questions you many already have. You will need to develop these further and turn these ideas and interests into problems and issues that your research project might attempt to solve.
You will also need to keep in mind your final product, keeping your research project in line with this will help you to identify a topic that isn't too big, or is not appropriate for your final product. In your case your final product includes
The steps below will help you find and develop your ideas and interests into problems and issues and finally into a research topic/question.
You might also like to read
Leedy, P. D., & Ellis Ormrod, J. (2015). The problem: The heart of the research process. In Practical research: Planning and design. Pearson.
As we suggested above, spend some time brainstorming the ideas and interests you already have or are in the world around you. Think about
The 5 Ws
It is also helpful, when considering a topic, to think of the 5 W questions: who, what, when, where and why:
WHY would you choose the topic? What interests you about it? Do you have an opinion about the issues involved?
WHO are the information gatekeepers on this topic? Who might publish information about it? Who is affected by the topic? Do you know of organizations or institutions affiliated with the topic?
WHAT are the major questions for this topic? Is there a debate about the topic? Are there a range of issues and viewpoints to consider?
WHERE is your topic important: at the local, national or international level? Are there specific places affected by the topic?
WHEN is/was your topic important? Is it a current event or an historical issue? Do you want to compare your topic by time periods?
When you've found a broad topic that interests you, do some more brainstorming. Are there any subtopics that might work for your project, if you're not sure, do some reading in the area.
This can help you prepare for research by explaining the language or jargon, and issues related to your topic, especially when you're investigating a field that's unfamiliar to you. Background information will also help you to answer the Who, What, Where and When of your topic.
Reference resources, including dictionaries and encyclopaedia; books and media are a great place to start searching for background information. You might find the range of resources on the Discipliine Specific Resources page in this guide a helpful place to start.
When you have a general topic, query it until you find questions that catch your interest. Identify the questions that come from a problem related to the topic.
Before you settle on a topic, make sure
In the final step complete the following...
Topic: I am studying....
Question: because I want to find out what/why/how....
Significance: in order to help my reader understand...
The aim of this step is to tease out the topic with a series of questions, this will result in your ideas being developed into issues for your research.
Think about the following:
Formulating a research question
Think about asking a how or why question. Keep the ideas of clarity, focus and complexity in mind.
The unclear version of the question below doesn’t specify which social networking sites or suggest what kind of harm the sites might be causing. It also assumes that this “harm” is proven and/or accepted. The clearer version specifies sites (MySpace and Facebook), the type of potential harm (privacy issues), and who may be experiencing that harm (users). A strong research question should never leave room for ambiguity or interpretation.
Unclear question - Why are social networking sites harmful?
Clear question - How are online users experiencing or addressing privacy issues on social networking sites like MySpace and Facebook?
The unfocused research question below is so broad that it couldn’t be adequately answered in a book-length piece, let alone a standard college-level paper. The focused version narrows down to a specific effect of global warming (glacial melting), a specific place (Antarctica), and a specific animal that is affected (penguins). It also requires the writer to take a stance on which effect has the greatest impact on the affected animal. When in doubt, make a research question as narrow and focused as possible.
Unfocused question: What is the effect on the environment from global warming?
Focused question: How is glacial melting affecting penguins in Antarctica?
Simple vs. Complex
The simple version of the question below can be looked up online and answered in a few factual sentences; it leaves no room for analysis. The more complex version is written in two parts; it is thought provoking and requires both significant investigation and evaluation from the writer. As a general rule of thumb, if a quick Google search can answer a research question, it’s likely not very effective.
Too simple: How are doctors addressing diabetes in the Australia?
Appropriately complex: What are common traits of those suffering from diabetes in Australia, and how can these commonalities be used to aid the medical community in prevention of the disease?