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EndNote: Unformatted citations

Working with Unformatted citations

If you are working with a large document (e.g. thesis) you may wish to work with unformatted citations in order to:

  • speed up opening, editing and saving of the document
  • minimise the chances of corrupting data when editing sections of text, i.e. moving sections of text that include in-text citations with hidden field codes

Unlike formatted citations, unformatted citations require that you have the corresponding EndNote library open in order to Update Citations & Bibliography.

Formatted references

Formatted references inserted in a Microsoft™ Word document using CWYW will be displayed in the selected output style:

(Spencer, 2006)

and be associated with a corresponding item in the reference list.

Spencer, P. E. (2006). Oxford handbook of deaf studies, language, and education. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Unformatted references

In-text citations can be unformatted using


Convert Citations & Bibliography > Convert to Unformatted Citations


Tools > Convert to Unformatted Citations

The same reference would appear unformatted as:

{Spencer, 2006 #145}

This can be converted back to a formatted reference using


Update Citations and Bibliography


Tools > Update Citations & Bibliography

You can continue to write, edit and insert citations while Instant Formatting is Off.

Unformatted citations can also be manually edited in Microsoft™ Word; to add a prefix, suffix or page numbers, exclude the author or year, or remove the citation, Adding '@25' to the above unformatted citation, i.e.  {Spencer, 2006 #145@25}, results in the formatted citation (Spencer, 2006, p.25).

Unformatted citation: Becomes formatted citation:
{Smith, 2017 #124@45}    (Smith, 2017, p.45)
{Bonham, 2008 #156@@author-year}  Bonham (2008)
{Bonham, 2008 #156@23@author-year} Bonham (2008, p. 23)