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CCI101 Research Skills Guide: Step 7: Writing and Referencing

Referencing at Charles Sturt University

The Referencing at Charles Sturt University webpage has lots of helpful information about referencing including links to the following resources:

  • Charles Sturt University Guide to APA 7th Referencing
  • Charles Sturt University Example of an APA 7th Reference List
  • Academic Referencing Tool
  • APA 7th Style Blog

The main referencing style at Charles Sturt University is APA 7th though this is not the only style used at the University and you should check with your lecturer if you are unsure.


A citation, sometimes called a reference, is a description of a book, journal article or other resource. It needs to provide enough information so that readers can identify and find the resource.

Any statement that uses a fact or an idea from your source - even if you paraphrase and put the idea in your own words - must be referenced. 

There are many different methods of citation. APA 7 and Chicago Style are two that you can use in CCI101. Make sure to choose one and use it consistently within your assessment.

Including Images in your assessment in CCI101

In addition to providing references for all the scholarly material you use in your assessment, in CCI101 you must provide copies of all the images you discuss in your essay.

These images should be provided in an appendix after your bibliography. Images should provide evidence for your argument, they are not decoration. They should not appear within the text of your essay, as this often causes formatting problems.

Make sure all images are large enough for detail to be visible. Make sure you include any image that informs your writing - artworks, photographs, stills from a film or animation, stage designs, objects, or charts and diagrams.

Referencing Images

  1. Use a Figure number to refer to the image in your essay, e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2.
  2. In your appendix, provide a figure reference and a modified APA bibliographic citation underneath each image.
  3. The images should be in the appendix in the order in which they're referred to in your essay. 

For example, in your text you could use: 

When we consider Delacroix's The Death of Sardanapalus (Figure 1), it is evident that... 

You would then include the following information in the caption under each image in your appendix:

Figure number: Artist. (Year artwork was made). Title of Artwork [Description]. Place the artwork is held (art gallery, museum, etc.), location if known. Database or website where you retrieved the image.

e.g. Figure 1: Eugene Delacroix. (1827). Death of Sardanapalus [Oil on canvas]. Musee du Louvre, Paris. Retrieved from


Direct quotation

You can directly quote from a source as long as you make it very clear what is the quote and what is your own words. Format it clearly and make sure to cite correctly. 

  • Use quotation marks around the whole quote if you are using it within a paragraph.
  • Give longer quotes their own paragraph, and indent it to make it stand out.
  • Include the author, year of publication, and page number in your in-text citation.


Writing your assessment - support

Charles Sturt University also has other services which can help you to get the best possible results for your work:

  • Turnitin Software - A Turnitin account allows you to check your own writing for inadvertent plagiarism or quotation errors.  Detect and fix problems before submission. Some assessments will require you to submit your work to Turnitin before final submission! 
  • Academic Skills - Academic Skills advisers can help you understand and prepare for your assignments.
  • The Study Success Forum is an ideal place to post those vexing questions about assignment writing techniques. Find it in Interact2 > Study Success > Discussion.
  • Why not attend an Academic Skills workshop online to enhance or refresh your academic writing skills.
  • Make an appointment with an Academic Skills adviser for personal help seven days a week.

What is referencing?

Using information ethically

These guides have some useful resources and information that will help you to use information ethically while you are studying with Charles Sturt University.

Copyright for Students.

Using images at university.

Charles Sturt University acknowledges the traditional custodians of the lands on which its campuses are located, paying respect to Elders, both past and present, and extend that respect to all First Nations Peoples.

Charles Sturt University is an Australian University, TEQSA Provider Identification: PRV12018. CRICOS Provider: 00005F.