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CCI101 Research Skills Guide: Chicago style

Citations and referencing in Chicago Style

Art historians and historians traditionally use the Notes and Bibliography format from the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. so this is a style you can use for CCI101. This style uses numbered footnotes.

Each time you need to include a citation, add a footnote and include details about the source in the footnote. The footnote will correspond to an entry in your Bibliography. 

Refer to The Chicago Manual of Style Online for more information.

Citing a book

A book by a single author

Footnote

1. Author, Book title (Location: Publisher, year) page number/s.

e.g. 1. David Hockney, Secret Knowledge: Rediscovering the Techniques of the Lost Masters (London: Thames & Hudson, 2001), 52.

Bibliography entry

Author. Book Title. Publisher: Place, Year.

e.g. Hockney, David. Secret Knowledge: Rediscovering the Techniques of the Lost Masters. London: Thames & Hudson, 2001.

Note: In the Footnote, the author is represented as Firstname Surname, but in the Bibliography they are represented as Surname, Firstname. 

A book with multiple authors

Footnote

1. Authors, Book Title (Location: Publisher, year) page number/s.

e.g. 1. David Bordwell, Kristin Thompson and Jeff Smith, Film Art: An Introduction, (New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2017), 63-70.

Bibliography entry

Authors. Book Title. Publisher: Place, Year.

e.g. David Bordwell, Kristin Thompson and Jeff Smith. Film Art: An Introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2017.

Note: The authors should appear in the same order as they are listed on the front cover of the book. 

Note: When a book has four or more authors, you can use a shortened list of authors in the Footnote. For example, include the first author et al. e.g. David Bordwell et al., in the Footnote, then the full list in your Bibliography. 

A chapter in an edited book

Footnote

1. Author, "Chapter Title" in Book Title, ed. Editor  (Location: Publisher, year) page number/s.

e.g. 1. Brian M Kane, "Overview of Comics and Graphic Narratives, 1830-2012" in History of Illustration, ed. Susan Doyle, Jaleen Grove and Whitney Sherman (New York: Fairchild Books, 2018), 378-379.

Bibliography entry

Author. "Chapter Title". In Book Title, edited by Editor/s. Location: Publisher, year.

e.g. Kane, Brian M. "Overview of Comics and Graphic Narratives, 1830-2012". In History of Illustration, edited by Susan Doyle, Jaleen Grove and Whitney Sherman. New York: Fairchild Books, 2018.

Citing an article

A journal article

Footnote

1. Author, "Article Title," Journal Title, Volume, issue (Year): page number/s, DOI if available. 

e.g. 1. Veronika Koller, "'Not Just a Colour': Pink as a Gender and Sexuality Marker in Visual Communication," Visual Communication 7, no. 4 (2008): 395-423. https://doi-org.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/10.1177/1470357208096209

Bibliography entry

Author. "Article Title." Journal Title, volume, issue (Year): page number/s. DOI if available.

e.g. Koller, Veronika. "'Not Just a Colour': Pink as a Gender and Sexuality Marker in Visual Communication." Visual Communication 7, no. 4 (2008): 395-423. https://doi-org.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/10.1177/1470357208096209

Note: The authors should appear in the same order as they are listed in the article. 

Note: If an article has four or more authors, use a shortened list of authors in the Footnote, and then the full list in your Bibliography. 

Note: If you accessed the article online but can't find the DOI, you can list the name of the database after the page numbers e.g. JSTOR.

A magazine or newspaper article

Footnote

1. Author, "Article Title," Publication Title, Date, Year, Database or URL if accessed online 

e.g. 1. Kristin M Jones, "A Color Revolution of the Richest Hue," Wall Street Journal,  3 June, 2015, ABI/INFORM.
e.g. 2. Sean Redmond, "Explainer: Mise-en-scéne," The Conversation, 10 June, 2014, https://theconversation.com/explainer-mise-en-scene-27281.

Bibliography entry

Author. "Article Title." Publication Title,  Date, Year. Database or URL.

e.g. Jones, Kristin M. "A Color Revolution of the Richest Hue." Wall Street Journal,  3 June, 2015. ABI/INFORM.
e.g. Redmond, Sean. "Explainer: Mise-en-scéne." The Conversation, 10 June, 2014. https://theconversation.com/explainer-mise-en-scene-27281.

Note: Page numbers can be cited but are not required for bibliography entries.

Citing a website

A website

Footnote

1. Author if available, "Title or description of specific page", Title, description or owner of website, Date of publication or date accessed, URL.

e.g. 1. "Emily Kame Kngwarreye," National Museum Australia, accessed 9 September, 2019, https://www.nma.gov.au/exhibitions/utopia/emily-kame-kngwarreye.

e.g. 2. Peter Johnson, "Impact Strength: On the Outcomes of Socially Engaged Art," Museum Of Contemporary Art Australia, 18 August 2019,  https://www.mca.com.au/stories-and-ideas/impact-strength-outcomes-socially-engaged-art/

Bibliography entry

Author or owner of website. "Webpage title." Title of website (if this isn't the same as the owner). Date of publication or date accessed. URL.

e.g. National Museum Australia. "Emily Kame Kngwarreye." Accessed 9 September, 2019. https://www.nma.gov.au/exhibitions/utopia/emily-kame-kngwarreye.

e.g. Johnson, Peter. "Impact Strength: On the Outcomes of Socially Engaged Art." Museum of Contemporary Art Australia. 18 August 2019.  https://www.mca.com.au/stories-and-ideas/impact-strength-outcomes-socially-engaged-art/

Note: If a date of publication or revision is not available, use the date that you accessed the resource.

Note: Blog posts or online news articles should be cited like magazine or newspaper articles.

Citing a film

A film or a scene in a film

Footnote

1. Director, dir, Title of Film (Original release year; Place of publication: Studio/Distributor, Year of publication), Format.  

e.g. 1.  Denis Villeneuve, Blade Runner 2049 (2017; Culver City, CA: Universal Sony Pictures, 2018), Blu-Ray.

2. "Title of scene," Title of Film, directed by Director, (Original release year; Place of publication: Studio/Distributor, Year of publication), Format.  

e.g. 2. "The Wedding Scene," The Fall, directed by Tarsem Singh, (2006; Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2008), DVD.

Bibliography entry

Director, dir. Title of Film. Original release year; Place of publication: Studio/Distributor, Year of publication. Format.

e.g. Villeneuve, Denis. Blade Runner 2049. 2017; Culver City, CA: Universal Sony Pictures, 2018. Blu-Ray.

Director, dir. "Title of Scene." Title of Film. Original release year; Place of publication: Studio/Distributor, Year of publication. Format.  

e.g. Singh, Tarsem. "The Wedding Scene." The Fall. 2006; Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2008, DVD.

A streamed film

Footnote

1. Director, dir, Title of Film, (Original release year), Name of hosting service, Format, Duration, URL.

e.g. Jennifer Kent, dir, The Babadook, (2014), Kanopy, online video, 1:35:00, https://csu.kanopy.com/video/babadook.
e.g. George Miller, dir, Mad Max: Fury Road, (2015), Stan, online video, 2:00:00, https://play.stan.com.au/programs/958725.

Bibliography entry

Director, dir. Title of Film. Original release year. Name of hosting service. Format, Duration. URL.

e.g. Kent, Jennifer, dir. The Babadook. 2014. Kanopy. Online video, 1:35:00. https://csu.kanopy.com/video/babadook.
e.g. Miller, George, dir. Mad Max: Fury Road. 2015. Stan. Online video, 2:00:00. https://play.stan.com.au/programs/958725.

An online video

Footnote

1. Creator/presenter, "Title of Work," filmed Date at Location, Format, Runtime, URL. 

e.g. 1. Titus Kaphar, "Can Art Amend History?" filmed April, 2017 at TED2017 in Vancouver, Canada, video, 12:30, https://www.ted.com/talks/titus_kaphar_can_art_amend_history

Bibliography entry

Creator/presenter. "Title of Work." Filmed Date at Location. Format, Runtime. URL. 

e.g. Kaphar, Titus. "Can Art Amend History?" Filmed April, 2017 at TED2017 in Vancouver, Canada. Video, 12:30, https://www.ted.com/talks/titus_kaphar_can_art_amend_history

Illustrations

Any image you discuss in your assessment should be included in your submitted assessment, but in your document AFTER your bibliography.

Images provide evidence for your argument, they are not decoration. They should NOT appear within the text of your essay, as this often causes formatting problems.

To cite an image

Use a Figure number to refer to the image in your essay, then include a high quality reproduction at the end of your document. Make sure all images are large enough for detail to be visible. Make sure you include any image that informs your writing - artworks, photographs, stills from a film or animation, stage designs, objects, or charts and diagrams.

All images need a caption below the illustration. The caption always begins with a Figure number, such as Figure 1, Figure 2, (or Fig.1, Fig. 2). These should be numbered and presented in the order that they appear in your writing.

For example, in your text you could use: 

When we consider Delacroix's The Death of Sardanapalus (1827) (figure 1), it is evident that... 

Under your illustration at the end of the document you should include the following information in your caption:

Figure number: Artist, Title of Artwork, Date, materials, dimensions of artwork (height then width in metric measurements), Place held (art gallery, museum or private collection) if known.

e.g. Figure 1: Eugene Delacroix, Death of Sardanapalus, 1827, oil on canvas, 392 x 496cm, Musee du Louvre, Paris.

Chicago Style Resources

The Library has access to The Chicago Manual of Style Online, and there are print copies of past editions in the Library collection.

Additional resources:

If you're using EndNote, you can change your Endnote settings to Chicago, so it will automatically format your in-text citations and bibliography in Chicago style. See the EndNote Library Guide for more information about using EndNote.

Direct quotation

You can directly quote from a source as long as you make it very clear what is the quote and what is your own words. Format it clearly and make sure to cite correctly. 

  • Use quotation marks around the whole quote if you are using it within a paragraph
  • Indent it and italicise if you are using it as it's own paragraph
  • Make a footnote using the author(s), year of publication, and the exact page number(s). 

 

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